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The common spinal deformities in spine are

  • Scoliosis : lateral bending of spine
  • Kyphosis : forward bending of spine

Scoliosis

  • Congenital: defective formation of vertebral body
  • Idiopathic: definitive cause is not known
  • Neuromuscular: underlying cause is a in conditions affecting nervous tissue or muscles leading to scoliosis eg. poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, spina bifida etc
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Collagen vascular disease

Scoliosis can be detected early by a simple test called “Adam’s sign”. The patient is asked to bend forward. A prominence of ribs is seen on one side called rib hump. Scoliosis patients need regular monitoring with serial x-rays. Angles are measured to determine the severity of scoliosis. Surgery is considered once the angle is above 40 degrees. Surgery involves correction of the curve using metalware to obtain a purchase in the vertebrae. This can be performed from the anterior or posterior side. Surgical correction is done along with fusion so that the deformity does not progress.